top of page
  • Titanium Dioxide

  • Zinc Oxide

  • Tin Oxide

  • Niobium Oxide

  • Chalcogenides such as Cadmium Selenide

  • Copper Oxide, Carbon Nanoribbons

Counterelectrode (cathode)
  • Platinum

  • Carbon (through pencil, soot, graphene)

  • Recycled Battery

  • Carbonized eggshells, Carbonized Wood > not translucent, Corn husks,


  • Liquid Electrolyte

  • Polymer Electrolyte (arrowroot starch, iodine, potassium iodine, distilled H2O) Singh (2014)

  • Xanthan Gum + 1-Methyl-3- propylimidazolium iodide (PMII) (Park et al. 2013) 

  • Iodide Potassium Electrolyte 

  • Triiodide

  • Ferrofluid, Ionic Liquid, [Cobalt/ sulfur, Disulfide/ thiolate, Copper, or aqueous Titanium based] 

Dyes/ Sensitizers
  • Synthetic Dyes (food coloring or Solaronix)

  • Natural Dyes (anthocyanins [pomegranate, peel + leaves in particular] prickly pear )

  • Bacterial Secretions, Seaweed (Calogero et al. 2014)


  • Biopolymers (Bela et al. 2016)

  • Easy Melt Plastic

  • Xanthan Gum 



Conductive Edge 


Chemical Boosters:
- TiCl4 can be added to the anode (Ghann et al)
- Protoporphyrin ix as a more environmentally friendly + cheap alternative to Chenodeoxycholic Acid
bottom of page